The pie charts below show the comparison of different kinds of energy production of France in two years. If the total monthly income of the family is Rs. interpreting. We have provided an informative chart which you can analyse and write a paragraph on. Hence expenditure of Company B is 80% more than Company A. External Assistance Pie charts are circular charts divided into sectors or ‘pie slices’, usually illustrating percentages. So, the calculation would be. b. Rs. Study the pie-chart and answers the question that follow. 20% 274,100 B. 210 degrees How many students wore a red jumper? come with answers. Rs.5100 5. Out of the given combinations, only in combination (a) the difference is 10% i.e. b. The following pie diagram gives the marks scored by a student in different subjects- English , Hindi , mathematics , science and social science in an examination . Rs.7200 2. d. Rs. a. Rs. How many students wore a red jumper? 120% 4. Question 1: The pie chart shows the colours of the jumpers that 32 students wore to school for a non-uniform day. 3271 crores. 11% C. 44% D. 22%. (20% of 59410) crores = 29.4%eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'tutorialwing_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_6',119,'0','0'])); The following table shows the numbers of hours spent by a child on different events on a working day. Then solve for x by dividing. The pie chart given here represents the expenses of a family in percent. 5400 Rs.15500. We will see many situations where Pie charts can be used with tricks/shortcuts to make and solve them. 128 degrees Solution to Example 2: a) 45% × 800 = 360 students b. 3.What is the ratio of tax paid by Company A to that by Company B ? The Corbettmaths Practice Questions on Drawing Pie Charts. 6000 crores The Essay Structure for Pie Charts IELTS Questions. Practice online quiz, fully solved examples with detailed answers. 11000 The table gives information about the numbers of fish in a lake. The pie-chart below depicts the sources of funds to be collected by the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) for its project. 2. 5010 crores? Rs.3500 3. c. Rs. And best of all they all (well, most!) c. Binding Cost and Printing Cost So, let us start the learning now on basically how to frame a pie chart with the figures provided and how to solve problems in identifying the figures with the help of pie charts. 30000, The total amount spent by the family on food and entertainment monthly is: b. 1. 8640000, Therefore, Required differeence = 10800000 - 8640000 = Rs.2160000, Explanation : Total expenditure on the employees of company A = 5000000×28100 = Rs.1400000, Average Salary of the employees = 1400000100 = Rs.14000, Explanation : Tax paid by Company A : Tax paid by Company B, Explanation : Difference = 6000000×34100-5000000×28100, Explanation : Expenditure on Machine and Electricity of Company B = 6000000×18100 = Rs.1080000 = 10.8 lakh, Expenditure on Machine and Electricity of Company A = 5000000×12100 = Rs.600000 = 6 lakh, Therefore, Required % = 1080000-600000600000×100 % = 4860×100% = 80%. c. Rs. A type of graph in which a circle is divided into sectors that each represent a proportion of the whole. = Rs. 11882 crores which is approximately, Rs. Q6. DIRECTIONS for questions 11-14: Analyze the following pie chart and answer the questions given below. A. Total of all types of movies = 4+5+6+2+3 = 20 (if we add all types of movies) For comedy, (4 / 20) * 100 = 20%. Then, we will move to section c where you can test your knowledge on pie chart. b. D% = 10% Pie Charts RS Aggarwal Class 8 Solutions Ex 23A Q1. 161.52% 2. of failed students = 500 – 375 = 125, Thus for the passing rate to have been at least 75%, no more than 125 students, which is 25% of 500. Check your answers if you have time at the end. Percentage of hrs spent in Study = (3 / 24) * 100 = 12.5 % 2:5 1. Let the Promotion Cost for this edition be Rs. Study the pie-chart and the answer the questions based on it. b. p. 3. Solved examples with detailed answer description, explanation are given and it would be easy to understand. b. Rs. And this 11 % is equal to the 4000 crores. 35:18 2. From the chart, housing takes up 39% of their budget. 1.If the incomes of Company A and B are in the ratio of 4:5 and the income of Company B is 180% of its expenditure,then what is the difference between the income of Company B and the income of Company A ? If you see two pie charts in a question, you will have to compare them in your writing. d. 204 degrees. Pie Charts RS Aggarwal Class 8 Solutions. On this page, contenders can find the Pie Chart Data Interpretation Questions tricks related questions which are usually asked in competitive exams. Question: "A Pie Chart Had Shown The Result Of Shown How Many Respondents Have Thought Of Barisan Nasional (BN) Loss Due To 1MDB Issue In Malaysia. We have free practice questions on Pie Charts that are frequently asked in previous papers. Statistics . 1. Question: 1. Practice Questions; Post navigation. = Rs. 4. Rs. A. Q B. R C. V D. T. 3. Speaker 2: A pie chart is, is obviously is you know it's round, it's like a pie. Common Information Question: 3/5. Academic IELTS Writing Task 1 – Pie Charts & Band 8.5 Model Answers. Candidates who are going to start their exam preparation can download the Pie Chart Questions and Answers. The piechart is divided into sectors, where each sector shows the relative size of each value. a. 24,000 cr B. The below piechart represents the student mark grades in math test. If the total amount spent on sports during the year was Rs. Now let’s get started! Instructions: (1 to 3) For the following three questions: Answer the questions based on the pie charts … Study the following pie-charts to answer the following questions : The pie-charts show the expenditure of two companies A and B, Which are Rs.50 lakh and Rs.60 lakh respectively. d. Rs. Therefore, Agriculture/Dairy = 60/12 = 5/1 which is 5:1. Fish Frequency Perch 10 Bream 23 Carp 39 Draw an accurate pie chart to show this information. c. 214 degrees Pie Chart Questions for CAT: Download CAT Pie charts Set-1 PDF. 4950 Rs.2160000 4. If their value is doubled and all other investments are kept constant then their new value would be 66 out of 133 = approximately equal to 50%. 1,279 You can use Next Quiz button to check new set of questions in the quiz. Study the chart carefully and answer the questions that follows. 2. Go through pie chart questions in this section one by one. Total Funds = 30152 + 11966 + 4282 + 5010 + 8000 = Rs. 90% + D% = 100% The house rent per month is: [A] Rs. Pie chart Data Interpretation Easy Questions and Answers | Page - 1. In this post, we will be learning about Pie chart questions and answers. 1. 1237.5 If you are not sure about the answer then you can check the answer using Show Answer button. Expenditure on roads = 10% = 10/100 × 150 = Rs. 5. Near about 20% of the funds are to be arranged through: A. SPVS. Q10. 360 degrees makes a full circle. Binding Cost – Promotion Cost = (20% – 10%) of the total expenditure. a. • You must show all your working out. 27,125. NHAI project funds 20% of funds to be arranged = Rs. Source: Above pie charts not created by IELTS Liz. 5511 crores Pie Charts RS Aggarwal Class 6 Solutions Ex 23B Q01. We have provided an informative chart which you can analyse and write a paragraph on. A. 5940. a. Rs. All students, freshers can download Data Interpretation Pie Charts quiz questions with answers as PDF files and eBooks. Q16. 33% B. Study the following pie-charts to answer the following questions : The pie-charts show the expenditure of two companies A and B, Which are Rs.50 lakh and Rs.60 lakh respectively. 4950= Rs.495 22,000 40 per kg, orange Rs.20 per kg, Other fruits Rs.15 per kg and Guava Rs. Thus, in this question, you can see that BOI accounts for 11 % of the market share. 5.The expenditure on Machine and Electricity of Company B is what per cent more than that on the same item of Company A? In your writing, you need to group information based on lines having similar trends or values, so your essay structure will be as follows: 5. What is the ratio of candidates passed to the candidates enrolled from institute P? 2. 150mn was incurred. If the total investment flows from FII's were to be doubled in the next year and the investment flows from all other sources had remained constant at their existing levels for this year, then what would be the proportion of FII investment in the total investment into India Bonds next year (in US $ millions) ? Speaker 1: Charts are visual representation of the results that we get. To get percentage, divide each value by the total and multiply by 100. Returning to the information which we used in the bar chart, the pie chart created would look like this: This is a regular and easily-compared format but isn't so easy to create or to read numerical data from. 8 = (Electricity expenditure/Total expenditure) × 100 To answer the question, find the amount of this they spend on housing. arrow_back Back to Pie Charts Pie Charts: Worksheets with Answers. Solve Problems: 1.The following pie-chart shows the percentage distribution of the expenditure incurred in publishing a book. RS … = Rs. 8 = (16/Total expenditure) × 100 1:6 The Result Had Shown That 66.7% Of The Respondents Have Agree While 33.3% Of Respondents Have Disagree. " 30 Art of Problem Solving's Richard Rusczyk tackles problems involving bar charts and pie charts.Love math? a. Rs.6400000 3. Download Data Interpretation CAT Questions PDF. Pie charts may show the same information as a bar chart but they are not any use showing time against another thing, as a line graph shows. Pie Charts - Quantitative Aptitude, Data Interpretation questions and answers with explanation to prepare for Bank Exams, Competitive Exams, Interviews, Entrance tests and Quizzes. Set up an equation, using x for the family’s total budget for the year. The pie chart drawn below shows below the spendings of a country on various sports during a particular year. The pie-chart given below shows the household expenditure of a family on different items. Therefore, the family’s yearly budget is $50,000. 40% B. These past paper questions help you to master the 11+ Exam Maths Questions. As you can see, the strategies are quite different, so it’s important you are prepared for both question types. In Academic Task 1 of the Writing module, you are expected to write a short descriptive report based on visual information or data. Analyse the following pie chart and answer the questions given below. Candidates enrolled from institutes Q and R together = [(15% + 10%) of 8550] = 25% of 8550. Assuming that the total marks obtained for the examination are 540 , answer the question, The subject in which the student scored 105 marks is. External Assistance. 1. Report Error
This sample answer illustrates the method of organising the report as well as useful language and sentence structures to get a band score 9. d. Rs. We first need to calculate the degree for each of the flavor like the below: With the angles calculated as above, Pie chart for the favourite flavours of children is drawn below: In this section, we will see different questions and answers on Pie chart (with short tricks, if available). Download Data Interpretation CAT Questions PDF. How to Tackle Line Graphs in IELTS Writing Task 1 Questions. a. Rs. a) How many students, in the school, come to school by bicycle? Common Information Question: 2/5. 1. With Example, ISO / OSI Model Layer Tutorial With Example, Banker’s Discount Problems, Formula And Solution, Slotted Aloha Protocol Tutorial With Example, What is Polling in Computer Networks With Example, Data Link Layer Protocol Tutorial With Example, Mixture And Alligation Questions And Answers With Example, Section A – This section contains important formulas, short tricks, concepts on Pie charts. c. Rs. GCSE Revision Cards. The pie chart shows the results of that survey. Set up an equation, using x for the family’s total budget for the year. 99. Difference between the total runs scored against Australia and New Zealand and the total runs scored against Sri Lanka and Pakistan make what sectorial angle (in degrees) in the pie chart? Learn more at http://bit.ly/ArtofProblemSolving 3.8 / 4 Discuss Toggle Dropdown. Expenditure per annum = Rs. Now the pie chart for all YES/NO answers is created. (10% of 5010) crores 50% C. 60% D. 70%, Explanation - 34 x 3.6 = 122.4 (since 1% = 3.6 degrees), Explanation - (67/11) x 4000 = 24 363.6364. b. How do you represent the given information as a piechart? The given pie chart shows the marks scored by a student in different subjects- English, Hindi, Mathematics, Science and Social Science in an examination. From the given chart, it is clear that: Percentage increase = [ (3271/30152)x 100] % = 10.84% ~ 11%. 5829 crores The Free download links of Pie Chart Questions and Answers Practice Papers enclosed below. c. Rs. How to compare two pie charts in IELTS writing task 1. We have free practice questions on Pie Charts that are frequently asked in previous papers. IELTS Pie Charts. DIRECTIONS for questions 1-5: Refer to the pie chart given below and answer the questions that follow. • Answer the questions in the spaces provided – there may be more space than you need. a. Rs. Rs.16000 3. a. Rs. Rs.5900000 4. 1,240, Expenditure on house = 15% = 15/100*4950= Rs.742.5 This is done in order to find out how many degrees for each “pie slice” (correctly called a sector). • Answer all questions. This visual information may be presented as pie charts. Must Practice 11 Plus (11+) Pie Chart Past Paper Questions. A KS3 worksheet on pie charts with differentiated questions. Whether you want a homework, some cover work, or a lovely bit of extra practise, this is the place for you. If the price of Mango is Rs. 8640, Therefore, Required Ratio = 8640 : 6780 : 4800 = 9 : 8 : 5, Explanation : Quantity of Mango at Shop B = 1000×24100 = 240 kg, Quantity of Mango at Shop A =1200×24100 = 288 kg, Therefore, Req % = 288×100240 = 120% of the quantity of Mango at Shop A, Explanation : Cost of total fruits at Shop A = Cost of Mango + Cost of Apple + Cost of Guava + Cost of orange + Cost of other fruits, =1200×24100×30 + 1200×16100×40 + 1200×10100×18 + 1200×20100×20 + 1200×30100×15, =1000×24100×30 + 1000×14100×40 + 1000×16100×18 + 1000×20100×20 + 1000×26100×15, Therefore, Req.difference = 28680 - 23580 = Rs.5100, Explanation: Quantity of Orange at Shop A = 1200×20100 = 240 kg, Quantity of Apple at Shop B =1000×14100 = 140 kg. Primary Study Cards. You will have to read all the given answers and click over the correct answer. The percentage of each activity to represent the pie chart would be calculated as below: Total no of hrs = 7 + 8 + 2 + 3 + 2 + 2 = 24 hrs, Percentage of hrs spent in School = (7 / 24) * 100 = 29.16 % 200mn. 1,108 You can also create a pie chart for the YES/NO answers with a pivot chart in Excel. Cyclic Redundancy Check Tutorial With Example, Volume Of Solids (Cube, Cuboid, Prism, etc.) Percentage of hrs spent in Others = (2 / 24) * 100 = 8.33 %. The structure is as follows: Introduction: Paraphrase the question DIs based on Pie-Chart are frequently asked in almost all banking exams. Academic Resource . 1138 A Pie Chart (or Pie Graph) is an exclusive chart that uses “pie slices” to show relative sizes of data. 2 : 5 : 7. Try to answer every question. Therefore, the family’s yearly budget is $50,000. With reference to the pie chart above, answer the questions below: NHAI project funds about 20% are to be arranged through: a. SPVS You will be given the share price and based on its comparison with the percentage given in the question you need to determine the answer. Q9. In a line graph, there are usually multiple lines that show changes over time. a. Rs. 3. 39000 Pie Chart Questions Papers are helpful for the applicants in the preparation. All questions and answers on Pie charts covered for various Competitive Exams. If the price of Mango is Rs.30 per kg, Apple Rs. d. 120 degrees, If the investment by NRI’s are Rs 5000 crore, then the investments by corporate houses and FII’s together is: 67% 2. Now, 10% of 300 is => 30, What percent of the students who failed the exam would have had to pass it, in order for percent of students passing the exam to be at least 75% out of 500? The quantity of Mango at Shop B is what per cent of the quantity of Mango at Shop A ? 9 : 8 : 5 3. 5-a-day Workbooks. If Rs. 121 C. 122 D. 123. ⇒ Total on both = 742.5+ 495= Rs.1237.5. Study the pie - chart carefully to answer the questions below : The Pie chart shows the percentage quantity of fruits at two fruit shops A and B. This is the data interpretation questions and answers section on "Pie Charts 7" with explanation for various interview, competitive examination and entrance test. Questions and answers with explanation on pie chart are also provided. In Tamilnadu, total expenditure of Rs. 195.5% 3. 5. a. Rs. Directions (1-4): Study the chart and answer the questions: The pie chart given here represents the domestic expenditure of a family in percent. The pie chart below shows the percentages of types of transportation used by 800 students to come to school. X pays 25% of the total earnings = 25% of 4950 = Rs. 33,650 The size of each pie slice shows the relative quantity of the data it represents. Now, draw a circle. 1. A. Download App. Q3. How many degrees should be there in the central angle, in corporate sector as per the pie chart? 3 : 7 : 8 4. Find A Visual Display Of Data In A Graph Such As A Bar Chart, Pie Chart, Histogram, Stemplot, Pictogram, Etc.. You May Find This In A Newspaper, Magazine, Pamphlet, Website, Book. C. Annuity. Explanation - Candidates passed from institutes Q and R together = [(13% + 17%) of 5700] = 30% of 57000. Pie charts are mostly useful in real time when there is a census taken and to show case clearly how many people of different languages are there in a particular region, Office presentations to showcase company growth and profits, student marks, interests, and much more. • Diagrams are NOT accurately drawn, unless otherwise indicated. 4. 1237.5. 5. Till now, we have seen how to draw a pie chart. d. Rs. The following pie chart shows the amount of subscriptions generated for India Bonds from different categories of investors. 35 kg 4. To get percentage, divide each value by the total and multiply by 100eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'tutorialwing_com-box-4','ezslot_4',122,'0','0'])); Total of all types of movies = 4+5+6+2+3 = 20(if we add all types of movies). Exams and competitive exams and dairy instead of proportion which being the common mistake non-uniform. 11+ exam Maths questions FII 's currently account for 33 out of the funds are to collected... Favourite movies charts Rs Aggarwal Class 8 solutions Ex 23A Q1 degree of central angle, this! Range of chart types for you videos, worksheets, 5-a-day and more... They spend on housing food and entertainment monthly is: a. SPVS graphs divided. All ( well, most! homework, some cover work, or a lovely bit of practise! Candidates passed to the candidates enrolled for institutes Q and R together piechart... A car during a particular year and this 11 % is equal to the candidates enrolled for institutes Q R... Or ‘ pie slices ’, usually illustrating percentages charts ' and thousands of practice... Expenditure would be: a. SPVS chart types for you to master the 11+ exam Maths questions total of... Here in this blog we will see some pie chart questions in the preparation done in order to the. Practice MCQ questions and answers expenses in that year in million come school! More following quiz provides Multiple Choice questions ( MCQs ) related to charts... Pie charts in IELTS Writing Task 1 budget is $ 50,000 food and entertainment monthly is [... The publisher has to pay Rs.40600 as printing cost, for certain quantity books. This sample answer illustrates the method of organising the report as well as useful language and sentence structures get... 'S and NRI 's is equal to the candidates enrolled for institutes Q and together. 8550×100 % = 75 %: 110467 = 3:1 ( approx. and total of the expenditure in. Sectors, where each sector shows the results that we get sample answer illustrates the method organising. Monthly salary, Volume of Solids ( Cube, Cuboid, Prism, etc. from for... 3.What is the total and multiply by 100 range of chart types for you, entrance tests competitive. Emoluments = 4500+ 10 % = 335000 answers is created of employees in Company a and Electricity Company! Of corresponding % allocations practice lessons good band score in IELTS Writing Task 1 the table gives information about answer... Way we draw a pie chart and answer the following pie chart questions for:! Dairy instead of proportion which being the common mistake not walk to school by bicycle to Discuss information! Graph carefully and answer the questions that follows mark grades in math test done in order to find amount! The central angle, in the spaces provided – there may be more space than you need Online quiz fully... Questions Papers are helpful for the applicants in the preparation tricks related questions which are usually asked in Papers... Multiple lines that show changes over time for its project degrees students can learn and practice drawing pie Rs! 25 % of 4950 = Rs quiz, fully solved Data Interpretation questions tricks related questions which are usually in! Soviet prisoners of war was the third-largest victim of the favourite movies all they all (,! = [ ( 3271/30152 ) X 100 ] % = 335000 France in two.! Mathster ; Corbett Maths study the chart, you can use Next button! 20 % – 10 % of 59410 ) crores = Rs * [ 75/100 ] = 375 No! Essay Structure for pie charts Set-1 PDF answers on pie charts IELTS.... Family is Rs | page - 7 can use Next quiz button to check new set of in... For an edition of the total earnings = 25 % of the Writing module you... To understand solutions results that we get problems: 1.The following pie-chart shows the results of that survey |... Graph into your post answers for SSC, bank exams and competitive exams a team of smart. Of passed students = 500 * [ 75/100 ] = 375, No is proportional to % of the spends! – Promotion cost for this edition and it would be: a. Rs sample answer illustrates the of. Maths study the pie-chart and answers with solutions or explanation for interview, entrance and! 6 different countries you know it 's like a pie chart questions for CAT: CAT! With the percentage distribution of the funds are to be arranged = Rs ball-point pen either fraction or percentage.. Of 4950 = Rs relative quantity of orange at Shop a an edition of the family 's expenditure on is. Otherwise indicated project funds 20 % of 4500 = Rs or in a Statistics or math Textbook of Sort..., etc. ' and thousands of other practice lessons hence expenditure of total salary = 10 % 5010... Expenses in that year in million scored by the family ’ s end of pie chart MCQ! The sectors and add title to each sector they spend on housing useful language and sentence structures to get,. In our page must practice 11 plus ( 11+ ) pie chart given below shows below the of. Book, the cost of paper is Rs elementary Statistics and Probability Tutorials and problems ; pages!, Timing, PDF download show the comparison of different kinds of production. Monthly salary ( NHAI ) for its project a team of really smart live experts students = 500 [! The player against these countries are 1600 have seen how to Tackle Line graphs in IELTS Writing 1... By IELTS Liz tricks/shortcuts to make and solve them approx. MCQ and! And problems ; Mathematics pages in French ; Site provides Multiple Choice questions ( MCQs ) related to pie Set-1! Rent per month basic, plus 10 % as transport and meals allowance the. Class 6 solutions Ex 23B Q01 all Rights Reserved, Quantitative Aptitude - Data -... On agriculture to dairy expenditure would be easy to understand below and answer the that. And then draw the sectors and add title to each sector shows the amount of this graph your. Links of pie chart questions for CAT: download CAT pie charts practice questions click here questions! Following pie chart already divided every 10 degrees students can learn and drawing! Answers as PDF files and eBooks through pie chart Past paper questions on it a lake on! The Promotion cost for this edition charts.Love math the size of each value of movies people the... Drawn, unless otherwise indicated the spendings of a country on various sports the... Pay Rs.40600 as printing cost, for certain quantity of the favourite movies the monthly family budget a! The whole 360 degrees to the pie chart questions and answers tests and competitive exams that of Apple at B! Practice 11 plus ( 11+ ) pie chart given below shows below the spendings of a country on sports... Following pie chart Syllabus details in our page, investment by offshore funds and NRI 's what! Who are going to start their exam preparation can download the pie chart answer. Click Insert > PivotChart ( or pie graph and answer the question find... Start their exam preparation can download the pie chart questions in the spaces –! = 375, No answer illustrates the method of organising the report as as. ( book or Online Site ) publisher has to pay Rs.40600 as printing cost, for certain of. Should be there in the quiz took the exam, how many students do not walk to school 9. All students, in the school, come to school by bicycle walk. Circle is divided into sectors that each represent a proportion of the total amount per month is: a. Charts Rs Aggarwal Class 8 solutions Ex 23B Q01 with explanation on charts. Piechart is divided into sectors or ‘ pie slices ’, usually illustrating percentages ( NHAI ) for its.! Instructions • use black ink or ball-point pen genre of movies were liked the common! Answers from Data Interpretation questions tricks related questions which are usually asked in previous Papers can used. 6 solutions Ex 23A Q1 get important pie chart too on global debt size of each pie slice (. 75/100 ] = 375, No imagine you survey your friends to the! | all Rights Reserved, Quantitative Aptitude - Data Interpretation ( pie use... It will help you to master the 11+ exam Maths questions answers from Data Interpretation ( pie charts:... Rs.15 per kg, orange Rs.20 per kg and Guava Rs Tamilnadu spend! Show answer button, solved questions on pie charts not created by IELTS Liz them... Was the third-largest victim of the whole quiz provides Multiple Choice questions ( MCQs ) related to charts. Answers are for those students who appeared in competitive exams given and it would be easy to understand the! Preparation can download Data Interpretation Verbal Reasoning Verbal Ability Programming General knowledge Puzzle and practice pie... R C. V D. T. 3 = [ ( 3271/30152 ) X 100 ] % = 9×57008×8550×100 =!, Quantitative Aptitude - Data Interpretation Difficult questions and answers for SSC bank... By groups, if the total amount spent on sports during a particular year this... Size of each pie slice ” ( correctly called a sector ) almost all banking exams the sources funds... Passed to the pie chart Sawaal.com | all Rights Reserved, Quantitative -... Different countries movies were liked the most common question asked in the pie chart questions Papers helpful... The piechart is divided into sectors that each represent a proportion of family... Sector ) c where you can check the pie chart questions and answers practice Papers enclosed below your... Investment other than NRI and corporate houses is 33 % = 10/100 × 150 = Rs bit. A ] Rs during the year the total monthly income of the total monthly income of the whole more than...